Friday, 2 September 2016

How to Write A Good Economics Paragraph for Economics Essays

How to write a good Economics paragraph for an Economics examination is one of the hardest tasks for students of Economics or finance. The thing is, how do you get a lot of information synthesised and ready for a paragraph that you are supposed to write within a short a period of time, which will convince the examiner to give you a high grade? In this article, I tell you some major secrets to writing a good, solid Economics paragraph that will wow your examiner in an Economics examination.
First, always have a topic sentence that makes a key argument. For instance, tariffs are bad for the economy - that is a topic sentence and it makes an argument. Always have an argument in an Economics examination for each and every paragraph.
Second, substantiate your claim that you made by doing two things - either you explain or you draw a diagram, and then explain it.
Why do you need to do that? It's quite clear that no one will believe you if you merely tell them that tariffs are bad - you have to prove what you say. One more time: you have to prove what you say. In Economics, the main ways are verbal explanation, or diagrammatic (or mathematical) expression. So do that. Diagrams are best because this is Economics! For instance, draw the small country case to show that there is deadweight loss due to tariffs being imposed on foreign goods.
Third, give a relevant real life example. Explain the example too. Examiners want to see if you really know what you are talking about and can apply the knowledge that you have to the real world context. It is no use just drawing a couple of diagrams and then leaving it as that. Talk about ISI in Latin America in those dark ages of little international trade.
Fourth, you need to conclude and wrap up your argument - and link it to the question. That is so important but ignored often by students - linking back to the question.
Now let me show you an example which I often use:
"Tariffs hurt the local economy. (Then you draw a beautiful diagram). The diagram shows that for a small country putting a tariff on an imported good increases the price of the good, making quantity demanded fall and quantity supplied by local sellers to rise, thus causing deadweight. There is also an increase in the overall price and less quantity of that good is consumed. For example, a tariff on cars will make the price of imported cars rise and thus consumers will buy more locally-produced cars, like the Proton Saga in Malaysia. Consumers lose out because they pay more and consume less numbers of cars overall, but local producers and the government win. Deadweight loss is not efficient as losses from consumer surplus do not accrue to the government, producers, or consumers, but are lost. Thus, tariffs hurt the local economy via Pareto inefficiency."
The secrets are out, and they are simple - make an argument, then explain it using a diagram, then give an example which you must explain, and then come to a reasoned conclusion - for each and every paragraph.
Do this and you will ace your Economics essay exam. For a better understanding of how to write an excellent paragraph, visit my site on Economics Essays. All the best for your examination and thanks for reading!

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How to Answer the UC Wait List Essay

Being in California, the UC schools loom large for a lot of my students. Many of their parents have attended UC schools, and the system's stellar reputation combined with its low sticker price make these schools top choices for many of my students and their families. Admissions decisions for the UC schools are being released throughout the month of March, bringing good news - and some disappointment - to high school students around the world. But for some students, the decision exists somewhere between a yes and a no, in the form of the wait list.
One of the challenging things about the UC application is that there's one form that covers all the schools. So whether you're applying to one school or multiples, you only get to submit one application, one set of essays, and one list of your activities and achievements. When all the schools see the same materials, there's not an opportunity to discuss specifically what you love about any particular school. Unless you get invited to join the wait list.
Many colleges will accept and even encourage waitlisted students to submit new information. It might be your most recent quarter grades to show colleges that your upward trend is continuing. Or it might be an award or honor you've received in the last few months. But the UCs are unique in that they have a required essay for students who wish to be put on the wait list. UC Davis's prompt reads, "Please briefly tell us why you feel UC Davis is the right place for you to continue your education." Students might bemoan the fact that they have to write yet another essay for their college applications, but I see this as a wonderful opportunity to tell a college why you're interested in going there, and why you're still excited about it months after you first submitted your application.
The key to this kind of essay is getting personal. I always encourage my students to think about how other students might answer this prompt. They will likely talk about how strong the [insert your major] program is. They might say something about how nice the campus is. They might talk about how much they like the town of Davis, or the facilities, or the sports teams. But these responses are missing a crucial element: why is that important to you? And moreover, why is that unique to UC Davis? Maybe you like the campus because you grew up in a city, and you love the idea of looking out your dorm room window and seeing open fields for miles. Maybe you like the town of Davis because when you visited, you found this quirky coffee shop where a bunch of students were studying together, and you could immediately picture yourself there, having intellectual debates over cold brew coffee. Whatever your reason, you have to make it specific to the school and specific to yourself. So if you have the chance to write one of these essays, seize it, and give the most compelling reasons for why you're a great fit.

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TCS Placement Papers - Test Pattern and Preparation Tips

TCS Placement Papers will generally have three sections:
a) Quantitative Aptitude
b) Verbal
c) Critical Reasoning
Thirty questions can be expected from quantitative aptitude. Questions would be from areas like numbers, ratios, percentages, prime numbers, factors, HCF, LCM, surds, indices, distance, and time and speed. Preparing with good higher secondary mathematics books can help one to get equipped. This section is very easy compared to the other two sections and getting 30 out of 30 is achievable with good preparation and practice.
As said above, to prepare for quantitative aptitude questions one has to read the chapters, remember the formulas as well as practice those questions. Formulas can save crucial time during placement test. The questions on this section would be straightforward and not tricky unlike other placement papers like Infosys paper which is prone to contain tricky puzzles.
To practice for quantitative aptitude you can refer to previous TCS placement papers collected from your seniors and friends. Also you can try online TCS placement papers.
Verbal section will have 10 synonyms and 10 antonyms. There will a reading comprehension and fill in the blanks section as well. Any good grammar book can be referred to prepare for verbal section. GRE and TOEFL books can be referred as well. They can at least help you to answer synonyms and antonyms section. Other than synonyms and antonyms other questions would be easy.
Critical reasoning will closely resemble that of GRE papers. These questions will have a paragraph and atleast ten questions from the passage that require logical thinking and grasping.

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Essay Paper Writing - Step 1: Organize Thinking to Create Focused Topic Statement

There are no "secrets" to developing essays (persuasive, argumentative), term papers, or research papers -- so much information available about the topic. So from all that information, have you developed an understanding of some basic factors in paper writing for a high school or college assignment?
In the author's understanding there are three basic areas to consider when writing a paper. First is organizing one's thinking about the topic of the paper. Many persons appear to assume the human brain automatically organizes information -- and it does, but not necessarily in a way that is effective for communicating that information to others either verbally or in writing. The brain automatically relates new information to any relevant information a person possesses already -- this is what produces that "stream of consciousness" about a topic which results in too much information being communicated. So in building more effective written communications, like essays and term papers and research papers, it is desirable for a person to work at organizing whatever information he or she has or might locate about a topic.
To begin organizing one's thinking about a topic, a clear statement of the general topic is desirable and, usually, may be derived from the assignment directions. For example, the following might be included in an assignment -- " a current article that discusses or illustrates the portrayal of some aspect of cultural diversity in U.S.society." For such an assignment one might generate a statement like "The general topic of this paper is a review of some article that discusses or illustrates the portrayal of some aspect of cultural diversity in U.S.society." Notice in this statement the phrases "a current article" and "discusses or illustrates" and "some aspect," all too broad to focus your thinking about the general topic. How to refine this pattern of thinking to make it more focused?
Assume a relevant newspaper article is located - then instead of "a current article" one might think "a current newspaper article" -- notice how this refines the initial statement. With an article located one might determine the article "discusses" some aspect of cultural diversity, so substitute "discusses" for "discusses or illustrates." Also, once an article has been located, then one might substitute the particular aspect of cultural diversity discussed in the article and substitute that for "some aspect." For example, one might refine the initial statement of the general topic of this assignment like "A review of a current newspaper article that discusses black officers in the U.S.military." Notice how this narrows the focus of the general topic, providing a person with a much more effective pattern of thinking to use to express the general topic thus serving as a more effective basis for organizing one's thinking related to this general topic. Note, also, this statement will serve as the basis for the first sentence in what is commonly called the introductory paragraph. Also notice in this process that some research was involved to locate a relevant article prior to refining one's thinking about the general topic.
It is desirable to write the refined statement of the general topic at the top of a blank page so that it will be available for review while additional thinking about this general topic is being organized. If a person is using a mapping technique for organizing thinking, in the center circle of the map will be something like "black officers in U.S.military." Using what is in that center circle, thoughts about that topic will be in the other circles or spokes generated around that center circle. A tool for "mind mapping" is available at
Once there is a clear statement of the general topic, then comes the process of organizing one's thinking about what might be various points (thoughts) related to the topic in the center circle - but this process is for another article.

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How to Buy a Car With Low Income?

In 2014, Americans purchased 16.5 million cars. It means that 45,205 cars were sold in a day. If you look at the astounding number of car sales, you will realize that everyone around you is buying cars. If you want to buy a car but are unable to do so because of your low income, there is no need to take help from a predatory buy-here-pay-here lender. There is hope for you.
Car Ownership Programs - A Silver Lining for People with Low Income
Non-profit organizations have started car ownership programs in the country for fulfilling the car dream of people with low income. If you become eligible for the program, the non-profit organizations will provide a free car or offer a grant for buying a car.
How to buy a Car with a Car Ownership Program?
Buying a car with the help of a car ownership program can be a strenuous task for a novice. In order to make it simple and stress-free, follow the steps mentioned below:
>> Find a non-profit organization that provides car ownership program in your area;
>> Check whether you fulfill the eligibility criteria of the program;
>> Keep your financial documents and bank statements ready; and
>> Write an essay soliciting your need for a car.
What should you do if you get rejected for a Car Ownership Program?
If a non-profit organization rejects your request for obtaining benefits under a car ownership program, do not worry. You can apply with an online auto financing who cater to your needs and offers low income auto loan.
With the advent of the internet, competition has increased in the auto financing market. And, increased competition has compelled lenders and auto financing companies to open their doors to car buyers with low income.
How to obtain for Low Income Auto Loan?
In order to obtain low income auto loan, follow the tips mentioned below:
1. Make Down Payment
When it comes to buying a car, people with low income take tension of down payment. But, you need not worry about it. There is no need of applying for an outrageous personal loan for managing down payment. Also, there is no need to opt for no down payment auto loan. You can make use of your savings and put together money for down payment.
Remember that the down payment amount will lower the cost of the price, manifest the lender of your stable financial capacity and reduce interest rates.
2. Improve your Credit Score
Negative information stays on your credit report for several years. But, it does not mean that you have to suffer from bad credit score today. Here are a few tips that can help you improve your credit score and increase your loan approval chances:
1. Check your credit report;
2. Dispute all the errors that you find in the credit report;
3. Make payments and negotiate with creditors to remove the debt from your credit report; and
4. Pay your bills on time to ensure a stable payment history.
3. Get a Co-Signer
Lenders shy away from providing loans to people with low income because they fear the safety of their money. But, if you can manage to find a co-signer, the lender will be sure of getting regular payments. It is because a co-signer has the responsibility of making payments if you fail to do so.
Remember to ask someone with good credit history to become your co-signer because lenders do not accept a co-signer with bad credit history and higher debts.

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Why Should We Use Academic Editing Services?

Editing is the process that editors apply when they proofread a document. This is an extensive process in which spelling, syntax, grammar, and flow of content is checked and corrected. The editing process can be applied both for business writing and academic writing. Whereas accuracy and a crisp business approach are the prime requirements of business writing, in academic writing, the requirement is more deeply rooted. Upon closer review, the utility/use of academic editing is required for multiple reasons.
Checking the flow of content
An academic paper has to be consistent and well written. Sometimes, it becomes tough for the writer to check if the subject/topic he has discussed in the academic paper is coherent and reads well. An editor, being impartial, can check its consistency while providing input to improve the whole content if required. An expert academic editing service bridges the gaps and ties together the entire content on a thread so that it becomes easy to read and easy to understand.
Spelling, punctuation, and format checking
It is not mandatory for a subject expert to be a language expert. Several instances are found where a scholar has written an excellent dissertation, but from the aspect of language, it needs some polishing. In addition, unless a manuscript becomes flawless in terms of its language grammar, it often gets rejected. Checking the consistency of spelling, the right use of punctuation, and consistency in formatting are the basic aspects of academic editing and improve the readability of any manuscript.
Editing adds special flavor to content
Most academic papers contain graphs, tables, images, and bibliographical references. These citations need to get cross checked so that the entire papers is counted as authentic, well written, and correctly formatted. A professional academic editing service will help an author gain optimum confidence in the paper before it is submitted for evaluation/publication.
A professional academic editing service is a great tool for non-native speakers of the English language. This supportive service helps improve the paper's language level and ensures it properly adheres to a specific style, for example, APA, MLA, Harvard.
The services included in academic editing services
Checking grammar and syntax for international English writing styles and rewriting the discrepancies are the main objectives of an academic editing service. These areas include the following:
• Grammatical errors,
• Typographical errors,
• Run-on sentences,
• Quotation marks and punctuations,
• Subject-verb agreement,
• Sentence length, use of hanging indent, use of fragment,
• Consistency of spelling (UK or USA style)
• Uses of comma, colon, and semi colons,
• Use of tenses,
• Use of capitalization,
• Structure and theme, etc.

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Academic Writing and Composing a Research Paper

Academic writing building a research paper depends on the quality of the idea and information provided in that research paper. While there are always an unlimited amount of ideas to grab, some of them have been overused. Each paper as a few things in common that could create somewhat of a document that can be read by a few. Academic writing and essays aren't complicated and depending on the topic, they can create a stir. As the paper is being written the points and structure are valuable to a grade. The structure itself hasn't changed.
  • Thesis statement
  • Supporting arguments
  • The carry on that links them together
  • The body paragraphs for each supporting argument
  • The conclusion and restating the point being made
The Thesis Statement
The thesis statement in Academic writing can be made in a number of different known ways and it can also be made in unknown ways. The thesis is the statement that engages the reader and polarizes them immediately. The statement, no matter what its topic is, should be somewhat of an opinion that can be self-supported by their own research and there is no limit what can be stated.
Supporting Arguments
Supporting arguments are literally that, the arguments being applied in order to support the documents and create the body of the text, each of these arguments will be made into and extended for their supporting points and the relation to the thesis statement. They can be argued in any way.
The Carry
The carry on is referred to as the statements that create a smooth and readable transition for each document. In Academic writing, these statements are made after a supportive argument and often leads to into another statement.
The Extensions
The body paragraphs should include facts and statements that apply directly to the thesis statements and all of the work involved in them. The facts and argued points should be the makeup of this body and can always offer a valid point that would have otherwise been overlooked.
Restating The Facts and Points
The conclusion or statements that will ultimately create a way for the reader to understand the document is about to be graded, the thesis should be re-stated and the arguments should definitely be supported and the facts remembered. Each of these topics is a way to have a thesis statements and dissertation essay written in a basic way. This is the framework of an essay.

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Reference Services in Academic Libraries in Sierra Leone

Society is becoming more stratified and polarized, with the rich and the poor, the educated and uneducated, having limited cognitive skills wider apart than in any time in our history. In this period of increasing stratification by income and ability, the library in academic institutions may acts as a bridge between the entrenched social poles.
Reference libraries have the longest history of any type of library. They existed in the days of clay tablet and from such tablets, information was consulted and a list of concerns is being regarded as the primitive forerunners of current library catalogues. From their beginnings in ancient times, the functions of libraries have not altered significantly. However the format, quantity and content of the materials making up their stock and the resultant services have progressively been transformed to the point where the researchers today have access to a network of sophisticated information resources. The primary role of the library is educational and this has been the attitude if not the realisation of reference librarians (Higgens, 1988).
Academic libraries are those designed to meet general studies at the undergraduate and graduate levels and which also support their parent institutions in delivering their programmes for an effective teaching and implementation of practical skills. Higgens (1988) defined an academic library as that attached to help academic institutions above secondary level serving the teaching and research needs of students, staff and researchers. According to Harrods (2000) academic libraries are those found in universities, polytechnics, colleges and all other institutions forming part of or associated with the educational institutions.
Reference Services at the Fourah Bay College Library
Fourah Bay College library was established in 1827. It is located at Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone in the Michael Jollife Building which was named after the late Mr. Michael Jollife, an expatriate who served as College librarian from 1961-1970.
The first floor of the library houses the reception desk; photocopying room; issue desk; Sierra Leone Collection (incorporating the United Nations Collection); the American Shelf; General Reference Collection; Cataloguing Department; Acquisition Department; Circulation Department and the College Librarian's office. The second floor holds the Textbook Collection. The third floor contains the General Lending Collection.
The lower ground floor houses the Bindery; staff rooms and stores. The library has Professional, Para-professional and other support staff. It uses the Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme and the Triplicate Issuing System with Card catalogue.
Fourah Bay College library is one of the outstanding academic libraries in Sierra Leone established with the mission statement "to build a comprehensive collection of recorded information to support effective teaching, research and training in the Liberal Arts, Pure and Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Social Sciences and Law and related fields to facilitate speedy access to information, and to optimize the use of collection by potential library users of Fourah Bay College and other institutions."
Reference Service is the peak of library activity job. It involves the maintenance of a resource bank from which answers to queries are provided and materials needed by users are made available.Davidson (1979) defined reference service as the provision of information and materials to people entering a reference library and requesting help from the library staff. Katz (1997) viewed reference service as the behind-the-scene activities of the reference library in the selection, acquisition and maintenance of the library stock and its careful recordings and administration.
When we talk of reference service in academic libraries, we mean those activities undertaken by librarians and associated types of staff from the reference department in academic libraries. This is achieved through the use of collection of books, and other materials stocked in the reference department for reference purposes distinct from collection made for home reading or other use outside the library. The reference process in academic libraries involves the following:
• The user recognises his need for information;
• The user puts his question to the librarian;
• The librarian engages the questioner in a reference dialogue;
• The librarian refines and restates the question;
• The librarian formulates the search strategy;
• The librarian identifies and exploits his own and/or external information resources;
• The librarian presents his tentative findings;
• The user assesses the relevance of these in relation to his requirements; and
• The user accepts an approved answer.
Reference materials at the Fourah Bay College Library include:dictionaries, encyclopedias, abstract journals, directories, yearbooks, biographies periodicals/serials, indexes to periodicals, newspapers, maps and charts, technical reports, patents, standard specifications, dissertations, theses, conference proceedings and the academic and administrative calendar of events or the operation of the college.
In addition to these materials the library offers the following services:
Reference Service: This refers to the personal assistance given to users in finding specific information whether direct or indirect. At Fourah Bay College Library, a resource bank is maintained from which answers to questions are provided and materials needed by users are made available.
Bibliographic Service: The library prepares book lists and bibliographies for its clients, especially post-graduate students which serve as a great aid in their research activities especially in the writing of their theses and dissertation.
Photocopying Service: This service is provided for students who wish to photocopy their notes as well as lecturers who want to reproduce multiple copies of useful materials to make their lecture notes. Users pay a fee for this service.
Internet Service: This is the latest among the services provided at the Fourah Bay College Library. The Library provides an opportunity for staff and students to access information online via the use of the Internet. However, to use the system, the clientele must have some skills in the use computers and a fee is also charged for the service.
Binding Service: Mutilated references materials are sent to bindery to be bound. However it is not a free for all service as some cost is charged for the services rendered especially to students and for personal work of staff members.
The reference department at the Fourah Bay College library is a special one from which materials cannot be borrowed for home reading. It is served by special librarians called Reference Librarians or Information Officers, who assist and advise patrons in their research and other literature needs. They provide bibliographic or intellectual access and offer targeted services and programmes with the mission of educating, informing and entertaining a variety of audiences and the goal of stimulating individual learning and advancing society as a whole.
Reference Queries:are also answered in the library. These questions posed by the library patrons to the reference librarians with the aim of getting the right information to satisfy their needs. These queries are divided into:
Directional Queries: These are queries in which the reference librarian is asked simply for directions.
Ready Reference Queries: These are referred to as quick reference questions. They are queries in which the reference librarians need to consult only one source, and that adjacent to the enquiry point, in order to deal with the user's needs. This is distinguished from the purely directional level of work by the fact that the librarians need to consult some data rather than simply answer from personal knowledge.
Specific Search Queries: These are described as those in which reference librarians may need to consult several sources to ensure complete the satisfaction of user needs. They are the kind which are clearly understood without too much discussion and the sources required are obvious and fairly elementary.
Research Queries: These are queries that require extended searches, perhaps over several days and possibly involving a number of library staff concurrently. The marshalling of facts and figures from a wide range of sources, together with the need to write extensive background notes and explanations, and probably to borrow materials from other libraries and make a telephone call to advice or getting assistance from other libraries will be a feature of this type of query
Challenges of Reference Services at the Fourah Bay College Library
Academic Libraries in Sierra Leone, especially Fourah Bay College Library are not without challenges. These range from shortage of funds through lack of adequate professionally skilled staff to erratic power supply.
The library is wholly and solely dependent upon the college administration for funding. An assessment of funding at Fourah Bay College Library reveals that a very low priority is given to the institution's academic nerve centre. The library is gravely underfunded. Games and Sports Division is given a higher quotation than the library. This financial challenge has therefore limited the library in the provision of an excellent reference service to its clients. The library also lacks the required current reference materials to handle reference queries. This financial constraints has limited the library in acquiring the most recent reference materials.
Further the number of professional staff is small compared to the number of para-professional and other support staff. The reference section does not have adequate staff to handle the volume of reference queries from the bulk of the users of the library especially during peak periods.
Power outages also pose a serious challenge. The problem, though a national one, has affected the operations of the library. The 21st century library is supposed to be a digital library which must thrive on power supply. Sadly power supply in Sierra Leone is erratic and this has handicapped the Fourah Bay College library greatly. As such staff and users could not make use of such facilities as computer, searching the Internet for recent reference materials and information or photocopying materials which cannot be used outside the library or even have access to automated reference materials.
The reference department at the library does not have Internet facilities to aid in answering reference queries that require current response. Also the seating accommodation in the reference department at the library is inadequate and cannot accommodate the large number of students in the college who come in for reference services. The reference department also lacks Current Awareness Services (CAS), Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) all of which form the basis for reference services. Moreover the reference sources and resources available at the reference department are not well publicised or marketed which could serve as a strong link between the department and the clients.
Indeed, reference service is one of the most important services that a library uses to meet its aims and objectives. There is considerable potential in the use the college library of reference services but there are also many challenges. There should be therefore commitment on the part of the librarians, library administration, users and the college administration in order to achieve quality and sustainability in the development and improvement of reference services. Only through their active participation will reference services transform the teaching and learning process, alter the nature of information seeking, organising and using behaviour at Fourah Bay College.

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